E. Coli

Escherichia Coli DNA

DNA cloning by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli

Summary

The cloning of overseas DNA in Escherichia coli episomes is a cornerstone of molecular biology. The pioneering work all through the early 1970s, utilizing DNA ligases to remain DNA into episomal vectors, continues to be primarily most likely probably the most extensively used method. Correct proper right here we describe a novel precept, utilizing ET recombination, for directed cloning and subcloning, which provides varied benefits. Most prominently, a selected DNA house will doubtless be cloned from a elaborate combination with out prior isolation. As a result of this truth cloning by ET recombination resembles PCR in that each comprise the amplification of a DNA house between two chosen parts. We apply the strategy to subclone chosen DNA areas from quite a few goal molecules resident in E. coli hosts, and to clone chosen DNA areas from genomic DNA preparations. Correct proper right here we analyze main choices of the method and current quite a few examples that illustrate its simplicity, flexibility, and memorable effectivity.

Summary

How genomes are organized inside cells and one of the best ways the 3D building of a genome influences cell capabilities are important questions in biology. A bacterial genomic DNA resides inside cells in a terribly condensed and functionally organized form generally known as nucleoid (nucleus-like constructing with out a nuclear membrane). The Escherichia coli chromosome or nucleoid consists of the genomic DNA, RNA, and protein. The nucleoid kinds by condensation and purposeful affiliation of a single chromosomal DNA with the assistance of chromosomal architectural proteins and RNA molecules together with DNA supercoiling. Though a high-resolution constructing of a bacterial nucleoid is nonetheless to return again once more, 5 a number of years of research has established the following salient selections of the E. coli nucleoid elaborated beneath:

1) The chromosomal DNA is on the widespread a negatively supercoiled molecule that’s folded as plectonemic loops, that are confined into many unbiased topological domains as a consequence of supercoiling diffusion limitations;

2) The loops spatially arrange into megabase dimension areas generally known as macrodomains, that are outlined by additional frequent bodily interactions amongst DNA internet sites all by way of the equal macrodomain than between fully fully totally different macrodomains;

3) The condensed and spatially organized DNA takes the type of a helical ellipsoid radially confined all through the cell; and

4) The DNA all through the chromosome seems to have a condition-dependent 3-D constructing that’s linked to gene expression in order that the nucleoid building and gene transcription are tightly interdependent, influencing one another reciprocally.

 

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Introduction

In quite a few micro organism, the chromosome is a single covalently closed (spherical) double-stranded DNA molecule that encodes the genetic data in a haploid form. The size of the DNA varies from 500,000 to quite a few million base-pairs (bp) encoding from 500 to quite a few thousand genes relying on the organism. The chromosomal DNA is current in cells in a terribly condensed, organized form generally known as nucleoid (nucleus-like), which isn’t encased by a nuclear membrane as in eukaryotic cells.

The remoted nucleoid contains 80% DNA, 10% protein, and 10% RNA by weight [1, 2]. On this exposition, we overview our present details about

(i) how chromosomal DNA turns into the nucleoid,

(ii) the climate concerned therein,

(iii) what’s considered its constructing, and

(iv) how among the many many DNA structural choices affect gene expression, utilizing the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli as a mannequin system. We furthermore spotlight some associated elements that must be resolved. This exposition is an extension of earlier critiques on the topic [3, 4].

There are two important choices of nucleoid formation; condensation of a large DNA correct proper right into a small cell house and purposeful group of DNA in a three-dimensional form. The haploid spherical chromosome in E. coli consists of ~ 4.6 x 106 bp. If DNA is relaxed all through the B form, it might have a circumference of ~1.5 millimeters (0.332 nm x 4.6 x 106) (Fig 1A). Nonetheless, a large DNA molecule such on account of the E. coli chromosomal DNA wouldn’t preserve a straight inflexible molecule in a suspension. Brownian movement will generate curvature and bends in DNA.

The utmost dimension as rather a lot as which a double-helical DNA stays straight by resisting the bending enforced by Brownian movement is ~50 nm or 150 bp, which known as the persistence dimension. Thus, pure DNA turns into considerably condensed with none additional elements; at thermal equilibrium, it assumes a random coil form. The random coil of E. coli chromosomal DNA (Fig 1B) would occupy a quantity (4/Three π r3) of ~ 523 μm3, calculated from the radius of gyration (Rg = (√N a)/√6) the place a is the Kuhn dimension (2 x persistence dimension), and N is the variety of Kuhn dimension segments all through the DNA (total dimension of the DNA divided by a). Though DNA is already condensed all through the random coil form, it nonetheless cannot assume the quantity of the nucleoid which is lower than a micron (Fig 1C). Thus, the inherent property of DNA will not be ample: additional elements ought to assist condense DNA additional on the order of ~103 (quantity of the random coil divided by the nucleoid quantity).

The second important side of nucleoid formation is the purposeful affiliation of DNA. Chromosomal DNA will not be solely condensed nonetheless furthermore functionally organized in a technique that’s relevant with DNA transaction processes much like replication, recombination, segregation, and transcription (Fig 1C). Practically 5 a number of years of research starting in 1971 [1], has confirmed that the ultimate phrase type of the nucleoid arises from a hierarchical group of DNA. On the smallest scale (1 -kb or rather a lot a lot much less), nucleoid-associated DNA architectural proteins condense and arrange DNA by bending, looping, bridging or wrapping DNA.

At a fair larger scale (10 -kb or bigger), DNA kinds plectonemic loops, a braided type of DNA induced by supercoiling. On the megabase scale, the plectonemic loops coalesce into six spatially organized domains (macrodomains), that are outlined by additional frequent bodily interactions amongst DNA internet sites all by way of the equal macrodomain than between fully fully totally different macrodomains [7]. Extended- and short-range DNA-DNA connections shaped inside and between the macrodomains contribute to condensation and purposeful group. Lastly, the nucleoid is a helical ellipsoid with areas of terribly condensed DNA on the longitudinal axis [8–10]. We discuss these organizational selections of the nucleoid and their molecular foundation beneath.

E. coli Strains
E. coli Strains

Key Ideas:

  • E. coli is a hottest host for gene cloning as a result of excessive effectivity of introduction of DNA molecules into cells.
  • E. coli is a hottest host for protein manufacturing as a consequence of its fast progress and the flexibility to explicit proteins at very excessive ranges.
  • Bacterial conjugation could also be utilized to alter large DNA fragments from one bacterium to a singular.
  • E. coli is a hottest host for the have a look at of phage biology as a result of detailed data of its nucleic acid and protein biosynthetic pathways.
  • The flexibleness of E. coli to develop on chemically outlined media coupled with its intensive genetic toolbox make it a key system in have a look at of bacterial metabolic pathways.

 

Escherichia coli DNA helicase II (uvrD)
1-CSB-EP360936ENV
  • EUR 621.00
  • EUR 381.00
  • EUR 1943.00
  • EUR 882.00
  • EUR 1335.00
  • EUR 451.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 82 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA helicase II(uvrD) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli DNA repair protein recO (recO)
1-CSB-EP364006ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 43.4 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA repair protein recO(recO) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli ATP-dependent DNA helicase rep (rep)
1-CSB-RP095644Ba
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 104 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli ATP-dependent DNA helicase rep(rep) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli ATP-dependent DNA helicase recQ (recQ)
1-CSB-RP179794Ba
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 71.9 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli ATP-dependent DNA helicase recQ(recQ),partial expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli O6:H1 Replicative DNA helicase (dnaB)
1-CSB-EP811243EGXa0
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
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  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 58.4 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli O6:H1 Replicative DNA helicase(dnaB) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli ATP-dependent DNA helicase recG (recG)
1-CSB-EP326126ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 92.4 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli ATP-dependent DNA helicase recG(recG) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli DNA mismatch repair protein MutL (mutL)
1-CSB-EP543397ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 71.9 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA mismatch repair protein MutL(mutL) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody
abx411320-1ml 1 ml
EUR 509
  • Shipped within 1 week.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody
abx415692-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 634
  • Shipped within 1 week.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody
abx415712-1ml 1 ml
EUR 606
  • Shipped within 1 week.
Escherichia coli DNA replication and repair protein RecF (recF)
1-CSB-EP358973ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 56.4 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA replication and repair protein RecF(recF) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody (Biotin)
abx411321-1ml 1 ml
EUR 592
  • Shipped within 1 week.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody (FITC)
abx411322-1ml 1 ml
EUR 509
  • Shipped within 1 week.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody (Biotin)
abx415713-1ml 1 ml
EUR 718
  • Shipped within 1 week.
Escherichia coli Ribokinase (rbsK)
1-CSB-EP019397ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
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  • 50ug
  • MW: 36.3 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Ribokinase(rbsK) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli Flagellin (fliC)
1-CSB-EP300968ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
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  • 50ug
  • MW: 67.2 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Flagellin(fliC) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli Flagellin (fliC)
1-CSB-EP300968ENVe1
  • EUR 727.00
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 1943.00
  • EUR 1055.00
  • EUR 1335.00
  • EUR 513.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 51.2 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Flagellin(fliC) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli Exopolyphosphatase (ppx)
1-CSB-EP365319ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
  • MW: 74 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Exopolyphosphatase(ppx) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli Agmatinase (speB)
1-CSB-EP001447ENM
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
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  • 50ug
  • MW: 49.5 kDa
  • Buffer composition: Tris-based buffer with 50% glycerol.
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Agmatinase(speB) expressed in E.coli
Escherichia coli PCR kit
PCR-VHA207-48D 50T
EUR 425.8
  • Contact us in order to know the reactivity of the kit.
Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli PCR kit
PCR-VHA207-96D 100T
EUR 521.5
  • Contact us in order to know the reactivity of the kit.
Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of Escherichia coli
Top10F Escherichia coli Strains
S0024 100 ul
EUR 365
TG1 Escherichia coli Strains
S0026 100 ul
EUR 365
HB101 Escherichia coli Strains
S0031 100 ul
EUR 365
DH10B Escherichia coli Strains
S0032 100 ul
EUR 365
DH10Bac Escherichia coli Strains
S0033 100 ul
EUR 365
Stbl2 Escherichia coli Strains
S0034 100 ul
EUR 365
Stbl3 Escherichia coli Strains
S0035 100 ul
EUR 365

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